LETTER FROM THE EDITORS
The CROW at the University of Washington Bothell provides students with a platform to showcase research investigations they have conducted, analyzed, and synthesized on their own. As a reader, you will discover a myriad of topics ranging from Science and Technology to the Interdisciplinary Arts and a few in between. The multiple submission types and various writing styles featured in the Campus Research and Observational Writings should spark any reader’s interest. Beginning in this year’s publication The CROW features a new submission type, Researched Argumentative Essays. This submission type has been a wonderful addition to the journal and has allowed for new ideas and aspects of research writing to be included. The act of conducting research is proven to be highly impactful to learning practices that engage students outside of the classroom setting and allow them to think more critically about the topics they wish to discover. Having their work published will forever encapsulate and preserve their work while also transforming it into a powerful tool which may be used by the next academics who seek new ideas. By taking this monumental and often daunting step of subjecting their work to be reviewed and critiqued by their peers, the authors featured in this journal have progressed towards becoming contributors to the academic discourse of their particular field of study. The Editorial Board was overjoyed and worked tirelessly in reviewing all the incredible submissions this year. The selection process was undertaken with extreme thoughtfulness, sensitivity, and recognition of the hard work each of the students put into their papers. We want to praise all the students for the hard work they put into their research and everyone who submitted their work for review. We also want to thank the faculty and staff mentors who foster students’ passions and talents, while working with them to become published researchers.
The Legacy of Colonialism
How Concussion Frequency is Greater in Collegiate Athletes than Adolescent Athletes
Atif Mahmood Bhatti
ABSTRACT: Multiple studies have examined concussion frequency in athletes of all levels of play. Younger athletes are not immune to suffering this head injury that can have detrimental effects on how the brain functions. Numerous athletes in the age group of 13-23 year olds suffer extreme situations such as paralysis or even death after sustaining a concussion while playing a sport (Golomb, Grayson, Kralik, McLendon, 2016). Some studies have demonstrated that the prevalence of concussions is greater in youth athletes, whereas other studies seem to indicate that concussions are more persistent in collegiate and professional athletes. The aim of this study was to analyze previously published data on athletes ranging from the high school to the collegiate level and determine if concussion occurrence was greater in collegiate athletes than in adolescent athletes, or any athlete between 13-18 years of age. Based on my analysis, the concussion abundance in the tested adolescent athletes was 3.7% and the occurrence in the collegiate athletes was over twice as much at about 7.5%. This data demonstrates that concussion frequency in collegiate athletes is indeed greater than the adolescent athletes’ frequency. Information such as this can open possibilities to having more intense research on concussion frequency in collegiate athletes as well as improving the concussion protocol that is already in place.
Extreme Adaptations in Cetaceans: Deep Diving Behavior and Physiology
Allison Thomas, Alexander Richards, Clinton Foriska, & Ryan Mayer
ABSTRACT: The term cetacean refers to a unique group of oxygen breathing aquatic mammals, more commonly these species are known as porpoises, whales and dolphins. Around 88 species are classified within this category. The evolutionary history accepted by the general scientific community suggests that cetaceans may have evolved from quadruped type land animals that lived millions of years in the past. Most modern cetaceans exhibit similar physiological traits between species. Examples of this include: modified nostrils (blowholes), slender bodies, smooth skin and extensive thermal insulation. Of these characteristics, one of the most crucial to aquatic survival is an effective respiratory system. Since cetaceans all intake oxygen directly from the air, they must resurface to expel carbon dioxide and intake oxygen to fuel metabolism. Naturally speaking, the more effectively cetaceans can hold their breath, the better chance they have of evading predators and searching for food. As such, extreme adaptations like deep diving behavior have allowed consecutive generations of these creatures to feed and reproduce exceptionally well. It is important to note that the term “deep diving” does not necessarily represent physical depth but rather time spent below surface. This extreme adaptation is not singular and works through the regulation of many different bodily processes. Some examples of these include: Elastic arteries, respiratory physiology, gas regulation, myoglobin, blood circulation, and metabolism.
Physical Exercise as Treatment for Depression in Geriatric Psychiatric Patients
ABSTRACT: This paper examines the relationship between physical exercise and depressive symptoms in geriatric psychiatric patients, and how physical exercise can be used to treat depression in these patients. Studies were conducted that led to the conclusion that physical exercise is successful in treating depressive symptoms most effectively in the elderly demographic. This paper includes research from Carneiro et al, Carter et al, Heinzel et al, the New York State Office of Mental Health (OMH), Rapp, and Rosenbaum et al. These reports demonstrate the ways in which physical exercise is beneficial in combating depressive symptoms and disorders in patients over the age of 60.
Genetic Predisposition to Generalized Anxiety Disorder
ABSTRACT: Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is a subset of anxiety disorders and recently has been investigated by researchers worldwide due to a potential genetic predisposition. Researchers have consulted a variety of potential factors that could lead an individual to develop GAD, including familial structures, peer stimulus, age, living/schooling environments, and genetics. Of all of these factors, a genetic predisposition is the one factor that can be observed globally. This paper is an extensive literary review from international researchers looking at the potential for a genetic predisposition to GAD. This paper identifies a serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) as the genetic variant which is thought to predispose an individual to GAD. Finally, this paper looks at how identifying this genetic predisposition can lead to advancements in medicine and therapy and ultimately lead to curbing the amount of diagnosable cases of GAD worldwide.
Globalization of Clinical Drug Trials and Failure to Regulate
ABSTRACT: United States’ pharmaceutical companies often test their drugs in developing nations through the use of contract research organizations. Despite established ethical guidelines, questions arise of whether research in developing nations can be considered ethical. These questions surround the practice of using placebos, acquiring informed consent, and ensuring voluntary participation. Ethical guidelines such as the Belmont Report, the International Conference on Harmonisation, and the Declaration of Helsinki, outline important measures to promote ethical research, but they are rarely enforceable. In order to ensure ethical practices are being followed among drug trials, The Declaration of Helsinki must become enforceable and be recognized as the standard for ethical research in developing nations by United States’ agencies and research institutions.
The Efficiency of Women’s Health Resources in Developing Countries
ABSTRACT: The lack of access to health and family planning resources for women in impoverished countries has been recognized as a major barrier to national growth. Not only are equality and full reproductive agency for women inherent characteristics of a more developed nation, but other factors also largely depend on the well-being of female populations. When women are given access to family planning education, they tend to choose to prioritize the financial security of their families over sheer procreation. This goes on to benefit communities and nations as women’s rights are restored, individuals invest more in regional economies, and the overuse of limited resources is slowed. It is important to highlight that providing access to family planning and contraception in this argument is not equivalent to enforcing the use of that contraception. Rather, providing these resources is a response to a large contraceptive need – women who themselves desire to use contraception but do not have access to it. There has been great success in women’s health programs such as The Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning Program in Bangladesh, which is attributed with having decreased the fertility rate from 5 to 2.2 children per woman on average. Although there have been great recorded successes in meeting contraceptive need, resources are still extremely limited and some countries also face staunch sociocultural barriers.
Desertification of North Africa and the Desertion of its Refugees
Abstract: There were 20 million new climate refugees in 2008. There are 17 million people fleeing desertification right now. 60-75 million people in the North African region of the Sahara-Sahel desert region face displacement due to desertification. Climate change is causing desertification via droughts and temperature increases at levels never before seen. The United States must act: it should set a precedent of accepting climate change refugees, providing funds for United Nations Conventions, and become party to the International Criminal Court. The Sahara-Sahel is suffering and the international community is turning a blind-eye to their pain.
Doula Care for Low Income African American and Latino Mothers in a Hospital Setting
ABSTRACT: In the United States, African American and Latina women are 148% more likely than white women to experience birth complications such as cesarean sections and low birth weight babies. Implementing more support for birthing mothers during their hospital stay might decrease these outcomes. This support might be best found in a hospital based doula program that provides individual emotional and physical support to women throughout pregnancy and childbirth. This proposal will look at the current research on doulas and their positive impacts on low-income African American and Latina mothers.
Access to Physical Education in High Schools and Childhood Obesity
ABSTRACT: Childhood obesity is a major public health issue that affects adolescents all over the United States. Studies show that Americans’ average weight has increased since 1970s; for ages 2 to 5 obesity has doubled and nearly tripled among youth ages 6 to 19. According to the information collected by Interlake High School representatives, it appears that IHS more than fulfills students’ physical education needs because they have a robust physical education implementation program and that all high schools should provide to their students. Random sampling will be used to study Interlake High School students with a wide range of ethnicities. This research proposal will include analyzing data from the Healthy Youth Survey and the Bellevue School District. In this research proposal, the research question is: Is there a relationship between the access of physical education in high schools and childhood obesity, specifically for grades 9-12?
Experimental Applications of Differential Scanning Calorimetry to Test and Characterize Polymers at the University of Washington Bothell
ABSTRACT: Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is used for analyzing the thermal properties of polymeric materials used in many engineering applications. The data produced by DSC generates a heat flow curve that reflects the amount of energy required to heat a sample per degree Celsius over time, and heat capacities can be calculated. In addition to comparing enthalpies (∆h) for different materials, DSC is also a powerful tool to determine other important material characteristics such as melting temperatures (Tm), thermal glass transition temperatures (Tg), degree of crystallinity, and environmental oxidation. Also, the use of DSC coupled with other analytical techniques, such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Gas Chromatography (GC), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, gives insight to changes in material molecular composition. This paper describes several projects at the University of Washington Bothell where DSC was effectively utilized to evaluate actual industrial and sports applications of various polymers with the goal of understanding their respective thermal properties. The hands-on experience facilitates making connections with material science concepts learned in-class, and emphasizes the importance of material selection that engineers are involved with throughout their careers. Projects discussed involve degradation mechanisms in hydrocarbon-based binders used in sport track surfaces, analysis of premature cracking and failure of polyurethane molded covers used in electrical transformer housings, determination of an unknown polymer used in high temperature fluid filtration systems, and comparisons of poly vinyl-acetate adhesives used in composite materials.
Indoor Agricultural Technologies: An Introduction to the Future of Sustainable Farming
Gerald J. MacKenzie
ABSTRACT: Indoor agriculture provides a framework to address the need for new, innovative solutions to feed the planet’s exponentially growing population. This investigation assesses the advantages and future prospects of indoor agricultural technologies as a sustainable alternative to traditional farming. A hybrid approach of academic literature review and exploration of indoor farming culture is used to provide a comprehensive scope of indoor agriculture. Cost-benefit analysis is utilized to examine potential economic advantages of hydroponic gardening systems and Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). Advancements in artificial lighting technologies, a dwindling global water supply, and unpredictable weather patterns prompted by climate change, signals a promising prospective future for indoor farming.
Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy for Material Characterization at the University of Washington Bothell
Luke B. Daanomah & Bryce Denis
ABSTRACT: Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy is a powerful material analysis technique that can be used to help solve engineering problems. It can be used alone as a quick material characterization tool, as well as in complement with other techniques such as Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Gas Chromatography (GC), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), or Raman Spectroscopy to gain the complete physical and chemical makeup of a material. The application of FTIR spectroscopy in undergraduate research at University of Washington Bothell (UW Bothell) has greatly aided in solving materials-related problems in a variety of real-world engineering problems. At the UW Bothell, FTIR techniques are being used to analyze synthetic granular composites used on horse racetracks, crumb rubber from artificial turf and rubber flooring material (RFM), and for comparative studies of polymers such as polyvinyl acetate (PVAc). Within the granular composite track surface, FTIR tests indicated oxidation degradation of the wax binder used to hold sand, polymer fiber, and rubber constituents together (Bridge, Weisshaupt, Fisher, Dempsey, & Peterson , 2016). In the RFM, the FTIR spectra exhibits the presence of strong C-H and C-C bonds at approximately 2850 cm-1 and 915 cm-1 respectively. Also, shown was the presence of calcium stearate at 1600 cm-1, calcite at 1400cm-1, and zinc oxide (ZnO) at 690 cm-1 that gives RFM its waterproofing, scratch hardness, and UV protection properties, which are especially important properties desired in the tire industry. Finally, in the comparative study of PVA, FTIR revealed that different amounts of acrylic contents in PVAc give it slightly different properties. The PVAc sample with higher acrylic content shows a peak in the FTIR spectra around 1173 cm-1 which is of the acrylate copolymer group. This gives PVAc “special properties”—a disruption in the crystal structure of the PVAc, making it more flexible at room temperature.