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2024 CROW

Letter from the Editors


To our readers, 

The Ninth Edition of The CROW was composed and published in a time just after the COVID-19 global pandemic, as
members of the University of Washington Bothell community constructed and lived out our new normal. As we grapple
with ongoing global conflicts and mobilizations across campus, we feel that the mission of the CROW to platform and
uplift student voices have rarely been more relevant. As we acknowledge the hardship of the past few years, and the atrocities
advancing across the world, we thank you for being part of this work and reaffirm our belief in the value and impact of
student writing, student activism, and student investment in global futures.

With this edition, The CROW continues to highlight the incredible dedication of students at UW Bothell as they conduct,
analyze, and synthesize their own research investigations in topics ranging from science and technology, interdisciplinary
arts, health studies, and everything in between. Research is a high-impact learning practice that engages students outside
the classroom and allows them to think more critically about the topics they wish to discover. By taking the initiative to
submit their work for review by a board of their peers, the authors in this journal have taken steps towards becoming active
contributors to academic discourse that values inclusion, expansion, and critical thinking. As ways of writing and research
advance, student publications like The CROW lie on the frontier of newness. This year saw us pen our new AI policy,
balancing our multiple missions of accessibility, uplifting student work, and remaining true to our values while adapting to
new developments.

The University of Washington Bothell is built on the unceded ancestral lands of the Coast Salish peoples, including
the Duwamish and Snohomish tribes. We acknowledge this land’s deep historical, cultural, and spiritual significance
to Indigenous communities. We recognize the ongoing harm caused by colonization and affirm our responsibility as a
student-led research publication to engage in decolonization efforts. The CROW seeks to create an inclusive and equitable
publication that values Indigenous experience, knowledge, and culture, and fosters justice. We incorporate these values daily
as we look over each submission, and as we provide feedback.

We would like to extend special recognition and gratitude to our student authors. Despite fears of rejection, judgement,
or critique, our authors showed great appreciation and care for the extensive editing and publication process. We know
submitting was difficult, and we appreciate your patience and effort as we tried to ensure your work would shine. We are so
excited to share the 2024 Edition of The CROW!

With love,
Your friends on the Editorial Board: Phoenix, Newt, Robin, Sabine, & Morgan.

Obesity Affecting Low-Income Communities in America

Halle Egan

ABSTRACT: This paper will explore the causes, consequences, and potential solutions for obesity in marginalized low-income communities in the United States. Obesity is a multi-layer health issue with diverse types of causes and barriers, particularly impacting certain minority groups due to the unique challenges they face. This paper goes through the interventions across interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy that are tailored to the health issue of the targeted population. Additionally, there are propositions of possible solutions that could be effectively implemented within low-income communities based on the information gathered in this paper. The main goal of this comprehensive writing is to bring together and analyze information and interventions based on the health topic and population in order to gain a wide range of knowledge to implement into future implications.

Cores, Consumption, and Digital Aesthetics 

Luis Cruz

ABSTRACT: Following the COVID-19 pandemic, the social media platform TikTok saw a massive influx of new users, a large chunk of whom were Gen-Z. Following stay-at-home orders, many struggled to find ways to connect with others. Feeling disconnected and alienated from the world, many turned to social media platforms as an escape. Four years have passed since the pandemic, and Gen-Z now reigns supreme as the largest user base of TikTok. Perhaps coincidentally, the past four years have also seen surging reports of feelings of isolation and loneliness in Gen-Z. Remnants of the pandemic can be seen in Gen-Z’s struggle to understand their role in the world around them. One basis for this struggle comes from a lack of personal understanding. In a cycle all too familiar, Gen-Z has been turning to social media apps as a temporary fix for a complex issue. By analyzing trends on social media, we might be able to gain insight into how this demographic has been coping with a lack of self-understanding. In a never-ending sea of content, microtrends and aesthetic-cores stand out as a way for those lacking self-identity to find temporary comfort in belonging. But is this persona-escapism at all practical in the long run?

Museums as Wunderkammer and Community Centers: A Comparative Analysis

Layla Youssef

ABSTRACT: Museums are inherently experiential locales wherein objects are imbued with specific meanings that influence the ways visitors understand the wider world around them. In the context of cultural and historical objects, their presentation in exhibits greatly contributes to public perceptions of specific cultures, communities, people, and identities. Wunderkammer, or cabinets of curiosities, are prime examples of this, wherein the random organization and curation of objects based on their perceived exoticism depicts cultures outside of the West as strange, mysterious, and, at worst, dangerous. Therefore, it is imperative that museums institute inclusive and thoughtful exhibit designs that uplift and support represented cultures rather than diminish them. These ideas are explored through comparative analyses of exhibits at the Seattle Art Museum and Wing Luke Museum of the Asian Pacific American Experience and their incorporation of Wunderkammer-inspired and community-based exhibition models.

Impact of the Relationship Between Patient and Doctor on Health Disparities for the Hispanic Culture: A Qualitative Study

Karla Alvarez

ABSTRACT: This paper delves into the healthcare experiences of the Hispanic community in the United States, aiming to understand the impact of health disparities and the level of trust in healthcare professionals. The introduction provides an overview of Hispanic culture and its distinct practices, including reliance on home remedies and dietary supplements. It also highlights the lack of Spanish-speaking healthcare providers and the resultant challenges in communication and trust. The research question explores the relationship between patient-doctor trust and health disparities within the Hispanic community. Employing a phenomenological qualitative approach, the study will gather data through interviews and surveys with Hispanic cancer patients in Washington state. Analysis will focus on themes related to trust, experiences with healthcare, barriers to access, and views on the healthcare system. Ethical considerations ensure participant anonymity and confidentiality. The study’s significance lies in addressing the healthcare disparities faced by minorities, particularly Hispanics, and advocating for changes in the healthcare system to improve accessibility, trust, and patient outcomes. Limitations include the study’s geographical focus and sample size. Future research directions may explore health disparities in other minority groups and quantitative assessments of the impact of reducing disparities in healthcare. Ultimately, this study contributes to ongoing efforts to create a more equitable and inclusive healthcare system for all individuals, regardless of race or ethnicity.


Quantitative Study on Mitigating Children’s BMI: Execution of a School-Based Culinary Garden Initiative

Dalia Abraham

ABSTRACT: Pediatric obesity is a prominent public health issue worldwide, with substantial consequences for the physical and mental health of children. This abstract reports the results of a quantitative study that investigates the efficacy of a school-based culinary garden program in reducing children’s body mass index (BMI) and encouraging healthier lifestyle habits. These findings highlight the potential of implementing culinary gardens in schools as effective strategies for addressing pediatric obesity and promoting healthier lifestyle habits among children. Incorporating these initiatives into school curricula offers practical learning opportunities and enables children to make well-informed decisions regarding their health. This in turn, helps in preventing long-term health complications associated with obesity.

The Psychology of Substance Misuse Influencing Academic Performance of Homeless Youth in Seattle - A Qualitative Narrative Study

Nicole Vicente

ABSTRACT: Of the over 10,000 homeless individuals in the city of Seattle, more than half are classified as youth (15-24 years old). The University of Washington in Seattle is the sixth highest-ranked university in the nation; however,  there is a gap of study in why the homeless youth of this city do not get access to proper academic services. Due to the common causes of youth homelessness, such as family problems and abusive relationships, this vulnerable population is at risk of substance abuse and academic instability. This research analyzes homeless youth through a qualitative narrative study to determin`e the risk factors of substance abuse and the outcome of academic stability and endeavors. This study is focused on the homeless youth population in the city of Seattle, recruiting participants from the Seattle Union Gospel Mission.  Further research is needed to imply the correlation of decreasing academic stability in homeless youth, and to incorporate proper permanent interventions to prosper development academically and professionally.


Keywords: Homeless youth, substance abuse, academic stability, risk factors

Traumatic Experiences of Women Who Have Recently Experienced Homelessness

Elise Bao

ABSTRACT: Due to COVID-19, the housing instability crisis is on the rise. It particularly affects women, who are more at risk of victimization, traumatic events, and having a serious mental illness such as PTSD. Yet, existing research does not describe how these events shape women’s lives, especially those who have experienced homelessness for shorter periods of time. This proposal aims to gain a better understanding of how women experiencing housing instability are impacted by these traumatic events. Using a qualitative method study design and narrative and phenomenological approaches, one-on-one interviews will be conducted covering multiple topics including participants’ feelings of safety, concerns, and substance use. This research seeks to educate and raise awareness about the need for interventions and policies to ensure access to safer environments.

Maternal Mortality and Severe Maternal Morbidity Among Black Women: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study 

Nadira Hajimohamed

ABSTRACT: Black women face high rates of maternal morbidity and mortality in the United States, where they are 3-4 times more likely to experience complications and pregnancy-related deaths (Hailu et al., 2022). They face racial disparities in severe maternal morbidity and receive inadequate care to prevent pregnancy and delivery complications. I will use a qualitative phenomenological study to explore the lived experiences of Black women in the state of Louisiana surrounding severe maternal morbidity to draw out risk factors, barriers between healthcare professionals and patients, and improvements to maternal health equity. There will be in-depth semi-structured focus groups composed of 3-5 participants and one interviewer each. A limitation to this research is that this is not a representation of the United States as a whole, since southern states do have higher Black populations, which may not be the same for states in the West or East of the United States. This research can be extended by further looking into in-hospital births, birthing centers, and at-home births, comparing and contrasting the different outcomes within each facility. The lived experiences of Black women who have faced maternal morbidity highlight a broader system of preventable disparities while giving a voice for Black women to share their experiences in hopes of leading to change.

Qualitative Study to Understand the Journey and Experiences of Adolescents Who Undergo Misusing Opioids 

Yahya Wardak

ABSTRACT: Inequities in maternal healthcare, especially for Black and Hispanic women, are a serious issue that is killing many lives. The United States has a relatively high prevalence of negative maternal mortality; 700 women pass away during pregnancy or within a year of giving birth, and two out of every three of these deaths might have been avoided. The socioeconomic status, lack of access to prenatal care, poor medical care, underlying health issues (such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease), socioeconomic level, and persistent stress this population endures all contribute to its increased vulnerability. Some women decide against getting prenatal care because there are barriers that make it harder for them to get it. Since few people are aware that this is an issue that is happening, our community may take action to try and lower these statistics by first raising awareness to the issue. We would achieve this by considering potential laws that would ensure that everyone received the same level of treatment. This study aims to ascertain how having optimal care prior to, during, and after pregnancy may affect the maternal mortality rate. 

Obesity in America: Cross-Sectional Study on the Associations Between Fast Food Restaurants’ Density and Obesity Among U.S. Adults in Washington State

Giselle Mak 

ABSTRACT: Obesity has become the world’s most significant public health epidemic, and the prevalence of obesity and diet-related health problems have skyrocketed with the rapid growth of fast-food restaurants. Despite the rising prevalence of this issue, there is limited research on this topic. This research proposal aims to bridge the knowledge gap and to explore the correlation between fast-food restaurant density and obesity in the United States through a quantitative approach, using the measurement of the body mass index and participants’ residential proximity to fast food restaurants. The goal of this research is to provide valuable insights to help healthcare professionals and policymakers to create tangible interventions on obesity, and overall improve public health outcomes.

A Qualitative Approach on Climate Justice for Communities: Impact of Discrimination & Redlining in Seattle Washington 

Annie Edwards

ABSTRACT: Climate justice is centered around climate change and the ability make the burden of climate change to be more equitable. Redlining was a way to divide people through property ownership. This was done by putting immigrants and people of color in select neighborhoods that were poorly graded by the homeowner’s loan corporation (HOLC). The ranking scale was graded A-D on a map, grade A was labeled most desirable while grade D was labeled undesirable.  Seattle Washington has a history of redlining. The effects of redlining are still seen today with some areas who were graded D, having higher temperatures, more concrete, and less trees compared to grade A areas. This can have negative health effects and medical costs for those who are impacted. Doing a qualitative research project in a historical grade D area could for insight from the communities who live in the area. This can let us know how they feel about their community having resources to combat issues that can arise with climate change.


Perspectives of Occupational Stigma on Sex Workers in Healthcare Settings: A Qualitative Study

Chuck Frickin-Bats

ABSTRACT: Those who are known to be involved in the sex trade are deeply impacted by occupational stigma and that has far reaching effects on their lives, extending even to their healthcare. Stigma has also has an impact on the research about those in the sex trade. The focus of these studies is sex workers’ sexual and reproductive health. Reinforcing the idea that sex workers are only vectors of disease. There are very few studies about their general wellbeing and the healthcare they receive. From previous literature, we know that it is rare for sex workers to feel safe enough to disclose their work status for a variety of reasons including fear of arrest. We also know that when sex workers choose to disclose, they are often deeply shamed or even barred from returning to clinics and hospitals. How do those working in one of the most highly stigmatized professions experience interacting with the healthcare system? The narrative phenomenological approach of this study will provide vital perspectives from those living within the confines of occupational stigma and its impact on their ability to have their healthcare needs assessed and addressed. Studies exist that have measured how sex workers have previously interacted with the healthcare system through qualitative surveys. Very few studies exist that have put forth this type of data, making the proposed study invaluable to start creating room for sex workers within healthcare settings. However, when discussing studies to those who create policy numbers is not enough. Both qualitative and quantitative data is needed to paint a picture for policy makers to understand the lives of those who are impacted by the result of their policies. 

Evaluating Educational Efforts to Support Trauma-Affected Students 

Kori Cantwell

ABSTRACT: Traumatic events happen in everyone’s lives, and they can create impactful and irreparable consequences for those who experience them. In recent years, community events such as the COVID-19 pandemic and school shootings are becoming more prominent. For students in elementary schools, trauma can affect their performance, mental health, relationships, and self-esteem. It’s up to school districts, administrators, and teachers to provide support to students who are affected by traumatic events. This can look like ensuring training is completed, creating multi-tiered systems of support, and establishing and cultivating loving classroom communities. This research paper analyzes the different educational efforts to support trauma-affected students and strives to create more trauma-aware schools, classrooms, and educators.


Uyghur Forced Labor: The Role We Play

Liam Hunter

ABSTRACT: Regardless of current existing humanitarian efforts, the Uyghur population in Xinjiang, China are subject to forced labor. Human rights advocates have classified China’s treatment of Uyghur people as ethnic cleansing and genocide. This humanitarian crisis has a long-written history, yet nothing effective has been accomplished. America’s foreign policy, the Uyghur Forced Labor Prevention Act (UFLPA), has fallen short of its goals and failed to support those it was made to support. Approaching the second year since the creation of UFLPA, it is becoming increasingly important to alter the current trajectory. Attempts toward improving UFLPA to better support the Uyghur population are necessary for human rights movements globally. America must focus on utilizing its ability to publicly denounce countries while working toward eliminating e-commerce related to forced labor. Through my research, I propose policy change disabling the selling of forced labor goods through E-commerce websites and expanding labor laws onto offshore labor. I subsequently propose a national mindset change to repudiate countries backing China (whether willingly or not) in hiding human rights abuses.

The Value of Quantum

Steven Suarez 

ABSTRACT: This research paper, intended to be an introduction to the subject, discusses the field of quantum computing, describing its historical evolution and its properties that separate it from normal (classical) computing. While being able to potentially exponentially increase the speed of many computational tasks, practical quantum computing faces many challenges. Chief among these are the issues of coherence and error correction. Quantum systems are inherently unpredictable and susceptible to environmental interference, posing difficulties in maintaining the stability of quantum states (coherence). Furthermore, error correction in quantum computing remains an unresolved challenge, especially in the context of scalable solutions. This paper discusses these challenges in the context of today’s cutting-edge quantum technology, including Google’s Sycamore quantum processor. This exemplifies the current state of quantum computing while underscoring the current efforts being made to make today’s computer processors practical.

The Linkage Between Climate Change and Apple (Malus spp.) Fruit Phenophases in the Continental United States 

Faith Lambert and Mara Juarez-Velazquez

ABSTRACT: Apples constitute a large portion of the United States’ horticulture industry, even more so in the Pacific Northwest and Atlantic Northeast regions. The fruiting phenophase of the apple (Malus spp.) can be affected by many temperature-dependent variables, including sun and heat exposure, pollinator emergence, and fungal severity and presence. However, while there is plenty of research on how the apple fruiting season can be affected, there is very little stated about the trend in the fruiting phenophase length over the previous decades. Therefore, we used data from the National Phenology Network to answer if and how the apple fruit phenophase length has been affected by increasing seasonal spring maximum temperatures over the last 15 years in the U.S.  

Keywords: phenology, climate change, apples, Malus spp., fruit phenophase, temperature-dependent influences, Spring seasonal maximum temperatures, Pacific Northwest, Southwestern U.S., Central U.S., Southeastern U.S., Northeastern U.S.

The Correlation Between Springtime Temperatures and Flowering Patterns of the Black Cherry (prunus serotina) in the United States

Gursimar Tonk, Anwesha Naidu, & Xuantao (Rico) Zhang

ABSTRACT: This research paper addresses the impact of changes in temperature during the spring season on the flowering of the black cherry tree (Prunus Serotina) in the United States. Utilizing data from the National Phenology Network (NPN), specifically employing the Overall Max Temperature vs. Onset Day of the Year, Seasonal Max Method, and Accumulated Growth Degree Days (AGDD) Method, we aimed to predict the phenological impacts on flowering onset dates. Among the three methods applied, Figure 2, derived from the Seasonal Max Method, yielded the most reliable data. Our analysis revealed a noteworthy negative correlation between the onset day of black cherry trees and maximum temperature. By comparing the spring season to the rest of the year, we observed an increase in maximum temperature, leading to an earlier onset of flowering dates, as indicated by the R2 values. Our findings demonstrate a consistent negative correlation between temperature and the flowering of the black cherry tree. As temperatures rise, the black cherry tree exhibits an earlier onset of flowering, providing valuable insights into the phenological response of this species to changing environmental conditions.

The 1890s-1900s: How the Turn of the Century Influenced the Birth of Movies 

Phillip Gruenemay

ABSTRACT: Like all works of art, silent films (as in those made between the 1890s and the advent of sound in 1927) were influenced by the sociohistorical events of their time during their production. Given that most films were produced initially as entertainment, they can also act as windows into the times they were created in – whether intentionally so or not. This is especially true given the volatile times that occurred when a new art form – movies – was born, causing a deeper impression to be made within that art form that isn’t seen at first glance. This paper, therefore, covers how aspects of the Second Industrial Age and the Progressive Era influenced some of the earliest films of the silent era: Employees at the Lumière Factory (1895), The Great Train Robbery (1903) and The Kleptomaniac (1905). The paper first goes over these sociohistorical events to highlight the issues that were occurring at the time of each profiled film’s production. Then, it incorporates background information about each film’s production as well as visual analysis of these films to contextualize each film and show the influence made by these concurrent sociohistorical events. As movies stand as cultural landmarks since their invention over a century ago, recognizing their origins remains critical to understanding their evolution to what we have today. Connecting the finished product with the sociohistorical times they were produced remains critical to truly understand these cultural origins.  


Sexual & Reproductive Health: Approaches to Literacy Interventions for Children & Adolescent Youth
Ayla Badr, Hyojeong Kim, & Ryan Van Vuitton


ABSTRACT: In this paper, the researchers attempt to explore the multifaceted influences on sexual health tendencies in adolescent populations. A global emphasis is placed on this population to corroborate the interconnected nature of sexual health education. The researchers investigate sexually influenced decisions, statistical patterns such as the prevalence of unintended pregnancies amongst adolescents, and the factorial dissection of the social-ecological model. A program, named “Consider Me” was designed to facilitate an interdisciplinary approach to implementing sexual health education in settings of varying characteristics, including, medical and academic environments. The potential impacts of the program could result in the promotion of individual and community empowerment, the reduction of sexually transmitted diseases, and the depletion of stigmatization revolving around sexual health education. Through community-based participatory research, the effectiveness of the program can be assessed in real-time.

Autism: Is awareness the same in Japan and Korea?

Shakambari Ramachandran


ABSTRACT: There have been studies on autism as well as other forms of neurodiversity in the United States, but less is known about how other countries fare with awareness of these disorders. This paper is meant to look at how much the public in other countries know about this information and how they will treat people based on their behavior. Autism is the primary focus of this research because there is more information available about this topic on a global scale. As it is a developmental function that affects behavior, the actions of affected individuals will vary. Korea and Japan were chosen for the setting of this topic, since they are known to be well-developed countries and would have a greater chance of having the resources needed for those who are neurologically diverse compared to other countries.

Keywords: Autism, Awareness, Japan, Korea, Neurodiversity

Fabricated Cuts: Is Cultured Meat a More Sustainable Meat Alternative?

Emma Uderski

ABSTRACT: Cultured meat is an innovative protein alternative that is just hitting the markets in Asia and the Middle East. Produced by harvesting cells from young animals and culturing them on a scaffold, cultured meat theoretically provides a cruelty-free meat alternative that mimics the taste and texture of meat. Preliminary research suggests that cultured meat production could be more environmentally friendly than producing meat and meat alternatives and could reduce our environmental impact - notably land use and greenhouse gas emissions. However, since cultured meat is a relatively new area of study, there needs to be more definitive research in some areas, such as how energy consumption would affect environmental impact. This paper analyzes current research to explore the possibility of cultured meat as an environmentally friendly protein alternative.

Echoes of Resilience: Unveiling the Tapestry of Suffering in Palestine 

Hoda El Anany

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to stress the urgency for humanization of Palestinians in the current genocide occurring in Palestine. This paper will use two approaches to the current genocide: one being humanitarian and one being legal. In the first half of the paper, there will be a brief history of Palestine and Israeli relations, emphasizing the implementation of Israel within indigenous Palestinian land. Discussing this history will show that the events unfolding in Palestine are not a sudden occurrence but rather the culmination of 76 years of systematic oppression. Western media outlets refer to the Palestinian genocide as the “Israeli-Hamas War’; using the official definitions of war and genocide, this paper will argue that this is not a war, but a genocide. Specifically, this paper will prove how the atrocities occurring in Palestine are a genocide under the Geneva Conventions in detail. This paper utilizes numerous statistical insights to provide a comprehensive understanding of the living conditions Palestinians are subject to, emphasizing the need to speak up for our Palestinian brothers and sisters, as they are in grave danger.

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