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2018 CROW

LETTER FROM THE EDITORS
The CROW highlights the incredible dedication of students at the University of  Washington Bothell to conduct and compose their own research endeavors. As the reader, you will discover a myriad of topics ranging from the biological sciences to the interdisciplinary arts, as well as issues pertaining to our own campus. The multiple submission types and diverse writing styles will spark the interest of any reader. The act of conducting research proves to be a highly impactful learning practice thoroughly promoted through the University. Research engages students outside of the classroom setting, allows them to think critically about the topics they desire to explore, and to practice producing knowledge for themselves and others. Having their work published will forever preserve their work, while also transforming it into a powerful tool to be used by the next generation of academics seeking new ideas. By taking this monumental and often daunting step of subjecting their work to be reviewed and critiqued by their peers, the authors featured in this journal have progressed towards becoming contributors to the academic discourse of their particular field of study. The Editorial Board was overjoyed to have the opportunity to review all of the incredible submissions this year. The selection process was undertaken with extreme thoughtfulness and sensitivity for the fascinating and well written submissions we received. We thank and praise all of the students for the hard work they put into their research and to everyone who submitted their work. We also thank the faculty and staff mentors who foster students’ passions and talents. In this volume we proudly present the work of a growing research community.

UW Bothell Commuter Crisis

Alexa Russo

ABSTRACT: This paper is a feasibility study analyzing the proposed potential solutions to the UW Bothell commuter crisis, including increased alternative transportation options, building new parking structures and lots, and a shuttle system to transport students to and from a lot off campus. By examining this important campus issue, this paper sheds light on the drawbacks to the proposed solutions that have been assessed by administration, namely environmental implications, community impacts, and cost impacts. The results of this study determined that the options on the table currently all have numerous benefits and drawbacks, and although building a parking structure might seem to be the simplest option for solving the parking issues on campus, the impacts of this action are numerous and could have many detrimental consequences, putting us further away from our climate neutrality goals.

Evidence that the Saber-tooth did not increase the Lifespan of the Carivora Species

Sydney Beaumont

ABSTRACT: There are many extant species from the Carnivora order, however, none of them are considered saber-toothed. It is examples like this that contribute to the mystery of extinction and speciation. To evaluate this example and to see if there is a correlation between having saberteeth and their extinction, the hypothesis tested is that non-saber-toothed species of Carnivora on average survived longer than saber-toothed species. Using the data from the Paleobiology Database, all species and genera from the order of Carnivora were downloaded. The average lifespan of saber-toothed and non-saber-toothed species were compared. The results indicated there was a statistical significance between the average lifespans and that the research hypothesis was supported. On average non-saber-toothed species existed longer than saber-toothed species of Carnivora. Reasons include the lack of evidence indicating the usefulness of the saber-tooth over the smaller and stronger conical tooth.

Bats May have Originated in the Western Hemisphere

Zachary Weldon

ABSTRACT: Although bats (order Chiroptera) make up one of the largest extant groups of mammals, second only to rodents, their location of origin remains a mystery. The fossil record of any genetically linked group of species can be a valuable tool to determine the location of origination of that group, and from there serve as a foundation towards further study of that group. This paper describes an analysis of the bat fossil record made to narrow the location of origination for bats to either the Western Hemisphere or the Eastern Hemisphere. The average age of fossils found within the Western Hemisphere was found to be greater than the average age of fossils found in the Eastern Hemisphere (27.66 million years old vs. 17.99 million years old respectively; p<0.001). This result would indicate that bats most likely originated in the Western Hemisphere. However, the poor quality of the bat fossil record has limited the data available which could potentially affect the accuracy of the analysis.

Cephalopod Evolution and the Increase in Size Across Mesozoic Periods 

Mudasair Zubair

ABSTRACT: By looking at a species’ change in morphology, which is their shape and size, throughout time, it is possible to learn about the environmental conditions they lived in and what effect they had on them. Specific elements that can play a role in the change of size are extinction events, environmental responses, divergent/speciation occurrences, and adaptions to an ecosystem. In this research paper, cephalopod widths have been examined to see if they have undergone a noticeable change in size throughout the three Mesozoic periods, Jurassic, Triassic, and Cretaceous. The result of this research is that the cephalopods have gone through significant changes in size between every period in the Mesozoic. It is suggested that this increase in size was a response to elements in the environment such as the Marine Mesozoic Revolution, the C/T extinction event, and other evolutionary factors.

Ammonoidea: An Exception to the Temperature Size Rule

Magdalena Brooks

ABSTRACT: A phenomenon exists where the size of animals living in colder regions are larger than those living in warmer regions. Scientists call this phenomenon the temperature size rule. Although there is no conclusive explanation for why the temperature size rule occurs there is much research that has been done on it and some studies have found exceptions to the rule. This study looks at whether ammonoids, an extinct subclass of cephalopods, are an exception to the rule because they had unique growth patterns and evolved rapidly. A linear regression was run using width as the dependent variable and paleolatitude as the independent variable. The null hypothesis, which supports my prediction, was not rejected because of a large p-value and a small r² value. Because of the lack of relationship between the two variables, as well as other factors, I conclude that ammonoids are an exception to the temperature size rule. Future studies should look at specific ammonoid species and explore more variables such as depth.

Female Stereotyping in Vampire Fiction

Amman Nega

ABSTRACT: This essay focuses on how negative stereotypes in the media can affect people’s behaviors towards the groups targeted in these films or books. More specifically, how vampire fiction portrays females as psychotic and by showing that they have nothing else to offer besides their bodies. The media can be highly influential and may even shape our understanding of the world and what we believe everyone’s role in the world is. Therefore, analyzing vampire fiction and their portrayal of their female characters is crucial in understanding why we may treat women in a less dignified manner compared to men. My paper provides evidence to prove that even subconsciously, men may treat women as if they aren’t as qualified for a job as their male colleagues. Looking at the source of where we obtain this information of what typical female behavior should be and figuring out how we can alter it in the books we read and the films we watch, will be essential in moving our society closer to reaching gender equality.

Health Care Access for Low-income Children

Thy Tran

ABSTRACT: Numerous of studies have identified over 3.5 million children are uninsured in the U.S due to barriers of income, cost of insurance, and confusion about the insurance process. It is vital for children to obtain a regular source of health care as they are experiencing the crucial developmental stages of their young lives. Financial barriers are the most profound answer in many studies conducted yet little is researched about its effect on access to primary care for low-income children in Snohomish County Washington. The study will investigate the obstacles low-income children face when trying to acquire needed health services. There are local reports about health care access among adults but less is known about children; this study aims to fill the gap regarding information about how poverty affects children and their struggles to receive health care. This study also takes a look at why children who are eligible for government assistance programs remains uninsured and how we can improve the programs to better support low-income children across the U.S.

Effects of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine on Memory in Higher Education

Thi Nguyen

ABSTRACT: MDMA is a psychoactive drug also known as ecstasy or the street name “molly”. (National Drug Intelligence Center, 2003). As the amount of raves and parties increases, the number of MDMA users are continuing to grow due to euphoria, hallucinogenic, and stimulant effects of the drug (National Drug Intelligence Center, 2003). In the first section, the author explores ways in which MDMA can effect the health of young adults at the University of Washington. Additionally, the research proposes a longitudinal experiment using a memory test to explore ways in which MDMA can affect the studies of students in higher education. This research paper will attempt to answer the question: Do college students who take MDMA have worse memory problems than those who do not?

Homeless Children

Hanna Ashagre

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the adverse psychological effects of homelessness on children; also, to analyze how homelessness influences homeless children’s behavior, school performance, social-emotional and developmental functioning. The study findings show that homelessness has a negative impact on children’s psychological development. Homeless children faced many challenges when they moved to an unfamiliar environment. The frequent movement increases a feeling of insecurity and creates severe psychological distress, which might lead them to experience anxiety, depression, social stress, and hostility. Also, researchers found that homelessness interferes with the ability to learn. Lack of social support systems may result in social emotional, low self-esteem and psychological distress in children. Moreover, homelessness may create depression in both children and their families. When mother is stressed the child is negatively affected by her stress. This study suggests that it is essential to address the cause of poverty and homelessness in the life of children. In addition, it is crucial to assess new intervention that might stimulate empowerment for child personality and mother-child relationship.

Immigration and Healthcare Policies Creating Barriers for Undocumented Hispanic Immigrants

Antoinette M. Smith

ABSTRACT: Undocumented Hispanic immigrants face many healthcare disparities while living in the United States. A review of recent research shows negative impacts on mental health and physical health statuses. These negative impacts have been created by fear of deportation, lack of preventative healthcare options/insurance and negative attitudes/stereotypes perpetuated by restrictive policies that target undocumented individuals. This proposal will examine how these restrictive immigration and healthcare policies have created challenges for undocumented immigrants and their families seeking access to healthcare. This proposal will demonstrate why additional research in this area is needed to identify barriers to health care for undocumented Hispanic immigrant community members to reduce poor health outcomes.