2020 CROW


The CROW highlights the incredible dedication of students at the University of Washington Bothell to conduct, analyze, and synthesize their own research investigations. As the reader, you will discover a myriad of topics ranging from Science and Technology to the Interdisciplinary Arts and a few in between. The variety of submissions received showcase the diverse styles and research subjects that will attract readers from all backgrounds. The act of conducting research is proven to be a highly impactful learning practice that engages students outside of the classroom setting and allows them to think more critically about the topics they wish to discover. Students present their ability to showcase and preserve their work, while also using it as a way to redesign and bring prospective to future academic research and endeavors. By taking the initiative to submit their work to be reviewed and critiqued by their peers, the authors in this journal have taken steps towards becoming active contributors to the academic discourse of their particular field of study. The Editorial Board was delighted to have the opportunity to carefully review the overwhelmingly positive and well written submissions we received this year. We want to praise all the students for the hard work they put into their research and to everyone who submitted their work for review. We also want to thank the faculty and staff mentors who foster students’ passions and talents, while working with them to develop into becoming published researchers.

Ayurveda: An Ancient Science for the Modern World

Karina Syrova

ABSTRACT: This editorial dives into the applications of Ayurveda to manage stress and anxiety, which include the benefits of oil massage, Shirodhara, yoga, and meditation. In the past few decades, pioneers of this system such as Harish Johari, Dr. Vasant Lad, David Frawley and also scientific research present that Ayurveda can be a complementary medicine to Western medicine. Ayurveda, known as the “Mother of All Healing” despite being an ancient healing art, has many uses today when searching for mental balance.

30 Ppt Yields Highest Rate of Limb Regrowth in Luidia Clathrata

Jakob Johnson

ABSTRACT: Sea stars have the ability to self-amputate limbs in the presence of danger (known as autotomy). How quickly those limbs can be regrown is vital to their survival, since having fewer limbs compromises sea stars’ ability to hunt. Donachy (1987) illustrates that variations in salinity impact a sea star’s ability to regrow shed limbs. Since 1950, average salinity fluctuations have increased by 5.3% on a global scale, becoming more extreme in both directions, probably due to climate change (Skliris et al. 2014). In light of this, the effects of salinity on limb regrowth is becoming a more and more urgent subject of research. For reference, salinity is a quantification of
the percentage of salt (normally sodium chloride) present in water, measured in parts per thousand (ppt). This paper will research the question: What salinity yields the highest rate of limb regrowth in starfish (specifically Luidia clathrata). This comparative study looked at two research papers testing how variations in the surrounding salinity affect the amount (length, mass, dry weight) of limb regrown (Kaack and Pomory 2011; Honeycutt and Pomory 2019). The studies tested salinities of 20, 25, and 30 ppt; both studies found that 30 ppt yielded the most limb regrowth per unit time and, consequently, the highest rate of regrowth. Kaack and Pomory (2011) recorded 1.6 mm/week, and (Honeycutt and Pomory (2019). 2.0 mm/week for a 30 ppt treatment. The more oceanic salinity veers from the average of 35 ppt, the slower regrowth will occur, making hunting and healing slower and more difficult for these animals, compromising starfish survival.

Men and Masculinities: A Case Study of Mass Shootings in the United States

Elisabeth Schnebele

ABSTRACT: Research suggests there may be a link between mass shootings and the values imposed by hegemonic masculinity. The vast majority of the men who commit mass murder adhere to strict gender norms that prove to be unsustainable. Consequently, the men in this study resort to violence as a way to reassert their masculinity and prove their status. While hegemonic masculinity does not
directly cause mass murder, studies have proposed it is present within the factors that exacerbate it. Primarily rape culture’s willingness to dismiss violence against women. While many of the mass shooters in the US fit this pattern, this paper explores the cases of Seung Hui-Cho, Robert Dear and Elliot Rodger; focusing on how hegemonic masculinity can lead men to commit gratuitous acts of
violence. Since mass shootings in the United States have become more common, it is important to explore what may be causing them so as a society, we can become more equipped to prevent them.

Sustainable Viniculture: Giving Salmon a Chance to Thrive for Future Generations

April Oertle

ABSTRACT: Seldom are vineyards considered significant polluters to the environment or inhibitors to life. However, conventionally farmed vineyards actually use excessive amounts of water and chemicals, coupled with extravagant bottling and labeling processes. The practice of vineyard farming is responsible for harmful environmental practices, unbeknownst to the public. Their negative environmental impacts include chemical runoff and soil erosion, which kill vulnerable salmon eggs incubating in satellite streams and rivers. Salmon populations in the Salish Sea have declined dramatically since first recorded in 1984. To improve the situation, multiple international universities have identified viable agricultural techniques for creating sustainable vineyards that tread lightly on the surrounding environment and can preserve water, lessen the need for chemical pesticides, and prevent soil erosion. An additional benefit is vintners do not have to spend money on these items, thereby increasing profit margins. From an ethical standpoint, vineyards should adopt these agricultural methods particularly since recent surveys revealed consumers are willing to pay more money to buy sustainably produced wines. Thus, how might vineyards implement certain sustainable agricultural practices to protect and mitigate damage to wild salmon populations?

Fentanyl for Respiratory Distress Management in Hospice Settings

Jessica Heitzman

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine whether fentanyl has greater efficacy compared to morphine for management of respiratory distress in adult patients with terminal illness in hospice settings. METHODS: This nonsystematic literature review considers the efficacy of morphine and fentanyl for relief of dyspnea and respiratory distress. RESULTS: Fentanyl delivers faster onset for relief of symptoms and it offers diverse administrations routes. Additionally, fewer side effects were noted that are commonly associated with opioid medications; these include neurocognitive changes, drowsiness, dizziness, and nausea. CONCLUSIONS: With greater than fifty percent of patients experiencing dyspnea at the end of their life, it is important to address dyspnea and respiratory distress to promote adequate management of these common symptoms. Dyspnea can severely limit the quality of life of individuals with a terminal illness. Although there is evidence to support fentanyl’s efficacy in managing dyspnea, more studies are necessary to quantify the significance and potential for this drug compared to other opioid medications.

‘LIKE’ and the Cross-generational Colloquial Conundrum: The Rise of Hieroglyphs in Colloquial Language

Grace Boulanger

ABSTRACT: Language barriers are found between generational groups more often than not, even when each group speaks the same language. Each generation adapts their language to suit their needs, which are influenced with a variety of factors including the technological landscape and social norms. Colloquialisms are a characteristic in English which connote a general idea between
individuals. They play a key role in understanding the tone and mood of a conversation. However, in the last thirty years colloquial phrases used by Millennials, such as “like”, have brought about a resurgence of hieroglyphs, the antiquated concept of a picture standing in for a mood, tone, or a series of phrases. By reshaping language to suit new communication needs Millennials and Generation Z have created a new type of language barrier between themselves and Generation X. Tracing new uses of the word “like” in social situations, writing, and spoken communication can determine where Generation X and the two newest groups are crossing wires, and help us gage community ties and communication strength within youth culture.


“Pull Yourself Up by Your Bootstraps” an American Mythology

Gabrielle Fox

ABSTRACT: In the United States an individual success does not equate a heightened level of effort on their part, nor is success more likely if one works harder. In short, we do not exist in a meritocracy, but we like to pretend we do. Phrases such as “pull yourself up by your bootstraps” are one such example of this pervasive and damaging mentality. These idioms are antiquated manifestations of
systemic oppression primarily directed at communities of color. This ideology is damaging due to the fact that it masks itself as harmless encouragement, when in actuality it perpetuates systems of victim blaming, racial and gendered stereotypes and invalidates the lived experience of those effected by these systems of oppression. The ideology of “working harder” as expressed within the bootstrap mentality is an invalid solution for overcoming systematic adversity in the United States due to poverty’s cyclical nature, a discrepancy in quality of and access to education, and the existence as well as impact of racial and gender wage gaps.


Policy Brief: Mandatory Vaccinations for Public Health 

Jessica Heitzman

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Once considered a triumph of public health, immunizations have fallen victim to rumor and skepticism while scientific evidence takes a back seat; Washington state legislation needs to take action and eliminate all non-medical exemptions for vaccinations. Recently, Washington has reacted to a nationwide measles outbreak by tightening exemptions on the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine to exclude personal and philosophical reasons, but still allows for religious and medical reasons (Caron, 2019). However, will this be the case for every disease outbreak, a reactionary response? We can choose to act now and save lives and costs by eliminating all but medical exemptions from immunizations for public and private schools as well as early childcare. “Vaccines can prevent infectious diseases that once killed or harmed many infants, children, and adults. Without vaccines, your child is at risk for getting seriously ill and suffering pain, disability, and even death from diseases like measles and whooping cough” (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2019). The dangers of not instituting stricter requirements include outbreaks of preventable contagious diseases among healthy individuals, susceptibility of the medically vulnerable, and extraordinary healthcare costs. In a single year the
economic burden of diseases in the United States that are preventable with vaccines are estimated at $9 billion (Ozawa et al., 2016). The focus for vaccination needs to begin with public schools, private schools, and childcare centers because they are not only a potentially vulnerable population, the individuals are in close proximity to one another and the environments are perfect vectors for transmission of contagious diseases. Additionally, requiring immunizations of the young will target whole generations and substantiate a foundation for disease eradication.

Racial Disparities in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Survival Rates: A Mixed Method Analysis of Contributing Factors

Aaron Davis

ABSTRACT: In the United States leukemia cancer patients of color continue to have lower overall survival outcomes compared to Caucasian leukemia patients, yet existing research does not detail what factors are contributing to a disparity in survival. This proposal aims to explore the impact variables such as transportation access, insurance status, and stage of cancer at diagnosis have in various populations ability to survive the cancer. Using a mixed method longitudinal study design with online survey elements, the proposal asks demographic questions, patient behaviors questions, along with socioeconomic status assessment, and utilizes qualitative narrative interviewing. The patients receiving active care for leukemia will be selected randomly from four chosen cancer treatment centers in the Greater Seattle area, those who agree to participate will continue with the study for five years. The results of the proposed study are expected to yield a greater understanding of factors that decrease the rates of leukemia survival in populations of color, with the intent of
influencing better care and outcomes for those populations. It is imperative that we continue to investigate the underlying factors that lead to disparities in survival and we believe this proposal is an important step in advocating for equitable care.

The Effect of Neurotoxins in Vaccines and Pregnancy Factors on Autism Spectrum Disorder

Tyler Youn

ABSTRACT: This study proposal aims to evaluate the relative strength of associations of the neurotoxin exposure from vaccinations and the parental health factors with the risk of autism spectrum disorder in offspring. The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder has  recently increased in the U.S. Infants aged up to 6 months old in the U.S. have 14.7 to 49 times greater neurotoxin exposure than the U.S. safety limits from parental aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines. The thimerosal exposure from vaccines for healthy infants younger than 7 months increased from 75 μg in 1990 to 187.5 μg in 1999 and healthy children younger than 2 years had thimerosal exposure increased from 100 μg in 1990 to 237.5 μg in 1999. A 74% increased risk of autism spectrum disorder in offspring was found from pre-gestational diabetes. Children of overweight mothers indicated a 28% higher risk of autism spectrum disorder and children of obese mothers showed a 36% higher risk relative to children of mothers at normal weight based on body mass index. An 18% higher risk of autism spectrum disorder in offspring for every ten year increase in maternal age and a 21% higher risk for increase in paternal age were found. A case-control study design will be implemented evaluating non-probability convenience sampling from three hospitals in Washington State. A sample of 120 children with autism spectrum disorder and 180 children without autism spectrum disorder will be studied. Autism spectrum disorder is mostly acquired as early as 2 years of age and children between 2 and 5 years of age will be included in the study. Controls will be matched to cases on gender, birth weight, and residence in order to accurately measure the
associations of the parental health factors and neurotoxin exposure with autism spectrum disorder
for public health planning and implementation of autism etiology.

Effectiveness of Clinical Drug Treatments for Alzheimer’s Disease in Slowing Progression of Memory Loss & Cognitive Function Loss.
Allen Lewis

ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of Alzheimer’s Disease drugs is crucial to knowing what drugs can be used to treat Alzheimer’s Disease and which ones do not. Currently, Aricept, Ebixa, Exelon and Lamivudine are the drugs used to slow the progression of Alzheimer’s Disease. These drugs are used to slow the symptoms of memory loss and cognitive function loss. In this proposal, I will be investigating the effectiveness of these drugs in slowing the progression of memory loss and cognitive function loss through administering memory tests, cognitive tests, surveys, PET scans and CT scans to Alzheimer Disease patients. The drugs tested will be considered effective if there
is evidence of a slow in memory loss and cognitive function loss.

DSHS Care Tool Mental Health Assessment Analysis: Is it Adequate In Washington State?
Kimberly Rice

ABSTRACT: The Comprehensive Assessment Reporting and Evaluation (CARE) Tool is a large scale holistic assessment that is currently being used by Washington State’s Department of Social and Health Services (DSHS). The CARE tool serves as a way to determine the care eligibility for people who may need to become involved in long term community services such as skilled nursing facilities or rehabilitation facilities. However, some people have difficulty with being able to access these long-term community services even though they need help with their Activities of Daily Living (i.e. eating, bathing, getting dressed, and mobility). To be more specific, people who have acquired traumatic brain injuries is an example of a patient population who have experienced hardship with being able to access long term community services, despite the CARE tool being in place. That being said, it was found that the CARE Tool is not as sensitive to the psychological signs and symptoms that are present when someone is first diagnosed with traumatic brain injury in the hospital setting. The CARE Tool only assesses patients in the hospitals based on the day of the assessment and seven days prior to the assessment date. In other words, it is not designed to predict potential significant changes or needs that a patient may end up desperately needing in the next 1 to 2 years. Based on this issue of assessment tool sensitivity, a literature review was conducted and it was found that there are multiple other behavioral and mental health assessment tools that can be used in lieu of the current behavioral and MMSE that are more sensitive to milder psychological signs and symptoms. In conclusion, it was found that the CARE Tool behavioral and MMSE assessments that are found within the CARE Tool needs to be changed by enacting policy change.

Obstetric Outcomes Among Women of The Navajo Nation: A Mixed Method Study Exploring Cultural Humility and Maternal Health Within Indian Health Services

Angelina Phoebe Keryte & Dacia Wagnon

ABSTRACT: American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) women are the first people of North America and yet often the first to be overlooked when it comes to maternal health; due to a complicated history of broken treaties and the long-lasting impacts of colonization. A telling sign about the overall health of the AI/AN population, is that their life expectancy is over five times less than that
of the U.S. population (IHS, 2019). Little research exists regarding the factors influencing these health disparities, especially with regards to maternal health outcomes. We will use an exploratory sequential design to build a baseline for maternal health in the Navajo Nation. For the quantitative analysis, data on 2019 births will be pulled and de-identified via electronic hospital records from four IHS hospitals on the Navajo Nation. The qualitative analysis will involve interviewing ten Navajo women about their experience with childbirth and medical personnel along with transcript coding for common themes. A limitation to this research is the inability to represent a causal relationship as it is a cross-sectional study. There is also the potential for confounding variables influencing the state of maternal health during the research year, such as lack of access to transportation. We encourage follow-up research to better determine the education
and training that IHS staff undergo. As our research will involve a vulnerable population, many cautious considerations will be taken into account in order to support and empower Navajo women by ensuring that their voice is heard.

Cliff Watson

ABSTRACT: In this paper, I will show that certain continuous assaults on individuality by the technologies of the medical-industrial complex’s surveillance state can be overcome, or at least mitigated, by rejecting conformity and reclaiming the self through a methodology orthogonal to the attack. I start by discussing practical and physical aspects of CPAP usage, including treatment alternatives, living with the device, social impacts on others, and general impacts of sleep – or lack thereof – on fatigue and general health. I explore aspects of gamification, control, and privacy involving the transition of intimate data to a corporate or public environment. I compare the personal impacts of the CPAP device to personal impacts in existing non-CPAP Research Paper and Technological Autobiography device studies. I then expand the discussion of airflow aesthetically and metaphorically to include alternative airflows such as dreaming and singing, both comparing and integrating the airflows of the CPAP and singing in a performative aspect. I conclude with a creative intervention to retain some personal autonomy and identity for myself, the individual.

Myths and Gender in Avatar: The Last Airbender
Katie Sue Eichner

ABSTRACT: This exploration of the show Avatar: The Last Airbender (2005-2008) analyzes several characters to discover how they accept and reject the norms associated with their gender. By using signs to explain how viewers determine each character’s gender, attention is called to the norms associated with certain gender identities. Among other social issues, the lens of fourth wave feminism values the pluralism of gender identity which expands beyond a traditional womxn-man binary. In looking at how each character interacts with the world around them despite their gender, we can determine how those actions align with (and stray from) the norms associated with their
Pokémon Go: The Unknown Truth About Players with a Mental or Physical Disability
Emily Person

ABSTRACT: Pokémon GO is an augmented reality mobile game where players must physically move around in populated areas to catch Pokémon and find Pokestops for digital rewards to help the player compete more competitively. This study looks at whether there is a difference in terms of hours played each week between players who have a physical or mental disability versus those who do not. A t-test was run using hours played as an independent variable and disability or no disability as the dependent variable. Rejection of the he null hypothesis did support my prediction that Pokémon GO players who have a disability play less hours each week. The null hypothesis
was rejected due to the significantly low p-value. Due to the lack of information between these two variables, future studies should explore comparing other restrictions involving people with disabilities versus people who do not have a disability. The purpose of this study is to analyze any restrictions Pokémon GO players with a mental or physical disability encounter while playing this game. If this is the case, further information should be included to help create an augmented reality game where everyone is able to be successful with no restrictions.
Augmented Reality Games and Accessibility

Lindsey McCormick

ABSTRACT: With the rapid growth of the gaming industry, it is vital to focus on whether or not all games being produced are accessible to players with disabilities. Players with physical disabilities struggle to use game dynamics designed for individuals with full visual-motor coordination. As well, players with mental disabilities have not been considered in the research of accessibility of video games. Augmented reality (AR) games, which integrate computer-generated images and interactions into real world context, are riddled with physical tasks as a part of game dynamics. This study looks at whether the social interactivity dynamics of the AR game, Ingress, are accessible to players with physical and mental disabilities. A chi-squared test was run comparing the observed and expected player responses to 7 questions evaluating their social interactivity in the game. The null hypothesis, was not rejected because of a high p-value of 0.3481. Due to this lack of significant difference between observed and expected responses, I conclude that the AR game Ingress has adequate accommodations for players with mental and physical disabilities. Further research can help conclude if Ingress can be used as an example for further game development.

Searching for Trends in the Atmospheres of Exoplanets

Wynter Broussard, Hielen Enyew, and Shushmitha Radjaram

ABSTRACT: The field of exoplanets has been experiencing rapid growth alongside the technological advances that have been made since exoplanets were first discovered in the 1990’s. More than 4,100 exoplanets have been confirmed, and that number will only continue to grow (NASA Exoplanet Archive). Several of these exoplanets have had their upper atmospheres probed with transmission spectroscopy. The goal of our research is to gather previously published transmission spectroscopy data in order to characterize trends relating exoplanets physical properties to their atmospheric compositions. We have studied hot Jupiters with periods of less than 3.5 Earth days
and with radii between one and three times the radius of Jupiter. There were 191 planets within this parameter space. We will present our results on the 24 exoplanets with spectral data in the wavelength range of 3000 - 9000 Å.

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